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> Consortium Vocale Oslo "EXAUDIAM EUM", SACD

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post 3/08/2009, 16:45
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Consortium Vocale Oslo "EXAUDIAM EUM" SACD
Gregorian Chant for Lent and Holy Week

Consortium Vocale Oslo "EXAUDIAM EUM" , SACD

Genre: Classical – Vocal

Гибридный SACD 5.0

Consortium Vocale Oslo
Alexander M. Schweitzer, conductor
Mario Guillermo Ojeda — soloist

Consortium Vocale Oslo:
Hans M. Borchgrevink
Kjell Viig
Øyvin Stray-Pedersen
Andrew Smith
Mario Guillermo Ojeda (soloist)
Бsgeir Bragason
Steinar Echholt
Alf Howlid

    First Sunday of Lent — Invocabit
  1. INTROITUS Invocabit me 2:47
  2. GRADUALE Angelis suis 3:58

    Second Sunday of Lent — Reminiscere
  3. INTROITUS Reminiscere 3:33
  4. COMMUNIO Visionem quam vidistis 1:24

    Third Sunday of Lent — Oculi
  5. INTROITUS Oculi mei 3:36
  6. GRADUALE Exsurge Domine 5:53

    Fourth Sunday of Lent — Laetare
  7. INTROITUS Laetare Ierusalem 3:52
  8. KYRIE XVII A Kyrie salve 1:33
  9. GRADUALE Laetatus sum 2:55
  10. TRACTUS Qui confidunt 3:21
  11. EVANGELIUM De caeco nato 5:03
  12. OFFERTORIUM Laudate Dominum 3:47
  13. Oratio super oblata – Praefatio – SANCTUS XII 4:21
  14. AGNUS DEI XII Pater cuncta 1:10
  15. COMMUNIO Lutum fecit 1:33

    Fifth Sunday of Lent — Iudica
  16. INTROITUS Iudica me 3:12
  17. COMMUNIO Videns Dominus 2:19

    Palm Sunday — Palmarum
  18. OFFERTORIUM Improperium 5:04

    Good Friday
  19. IMPROPERIA Popule meus - Trishagion 4:57
  20. HYMNUS Crux fidelis 5:06
  21. GRADUALE Christus factus est 3:23

    Total time: 72:47

Recorded at Ringsaker church September 2006 by Lindberg Lyd AS
Recording producer Morten Lindberg
Balance engineer Morten Lindberg
Recording engineer Hans Peter L’Orange
Editing Jørn Simenstad and Hans Peter L’Orange
SACD-mastering Morten Lindberg
Front page Cod. Sang. 54, page 53
Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen / Codices Electronici Sangallenses

Lindberg Lyd AS (2L43SACD, 7 041888 512028), 2007
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post 3/08/2009, 17:11
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Цитата( буклет )
EXAUDIAM EUM – Gregorian Chant for Lent and Holy Week

For quite some time GREGORIAN CHANT has experienced a new appreciation both as liturgical song and as a cultural asset of the West in the realms of music and spirituality. This is due, to a large extent, to the importance of Gregorian chant for the entire subsequent history of Western music, as well as to its high artistic quality. However, this alone cannot ultimately explain the newly awakened interest for this music. What makes Gregorian chant so popular today is its religious power that appeals to the deeper levels of the human heart; its spiritual and transcendental dimensions. The most significant of all is the power of the texts themselves. The great majority of them come from Sacred Scripture, and above all from the Psalms, in whose vibrant, all-embracing spirituality and poetry the Gregorian compositions engage.

Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM1
ORIGINS — The oldest liturgical chants of the Christian church were modelled on the music employed in Jewish synagogue services. Simple psalm recitations and prayers were adopted into the Christian liturgy. As early as the fourth century AD we find evidence for the antiphonal singing of psalms (alternating between two choirs) and for responsorial singing (between a precentor and a schola). Gregorian melodies developed largely out of these liturgical recitatives, and in particular from the psalmody. In the wake of the standardisation of the liturgy in the Carolingian empire, this repertoire of liturgical music arose mostly in the eighth and ninth centuries from the convergence of the chant of the Roman and Gallican liturgies, which up to then had existed as independent traditions. From this arose a new symbiosis of word and song, a perfect unity of text and melody, of great artistic expressivity and spiritual depth. The composers and performers often were monks, formed by their daily contact with the Bible. The musical substance given to the biblical texts stems from this monastic, contemplative spirituality influenced by patristic theology.

TRADITION AND NOTATION — It was originally by oral tradition that the chants were handed down. In the tenth century we find the first Gregorian music written down, representing the earliest examples of musical notation in the West. Written above the text in these so-called adiastematic manuscripts we find a system of signs, the neumes that stem from the hand-signals of the director and from rhetorical signs; these represent a detailed notation system. These neumes give no more than relative information regarding the melodic line; they contain, rather, nuanced indication for rhythmic-agogic interpretation of the music. By the eleventh century we find manuscripts the notation of which documents the exact melodic line through precise graphic positioning of signs, through the use of lines or of a lettering system that indicates pitch. Throughout the centuries Gregorian chant has enriched and deepened the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church and has been a source of inspiration in almost every period of European music history. A new interest in the ancient manuscripts was awakened with the movement of liturgical renewal that took place in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the resulting paleographic research brought the first important discoveries to light. The 1950s saw the emergence of Gregorian semiology as a scientific musical discipline. With the help of the indications preserved in the manuscripts, its goal has been to revive the Gregorian melodies in their greatest possible authenticity and in their original artistic and religious expressivity.

Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM2
Praying monk, Padova, Abbey of S. Giustina,
Corale 1, ca. 1504-1511

SUNG INTERPRETATION OF SACRED SCRIPTURE — Gregorian chant constitutes the most biblical of all Christian musical-liturgical repertoires; indeed it has been apostrophized as a sung exegesis of Scripture. A single example from the compositions on this recording may serve as an illustration: the intonation of the initial word of the Introit Laetare Ierusalem of the fourth Sunday of Lent is a literal and unmistakeable musical quotation of the final formula of the Alleluia from the Easter Vigil. For a singer at home with the Gregorian repertoire this connection is evident and incontrovertible. The intention of the composer is to place Jerusalem’s rejoicing within the context of Easter, allowing the joy of Easter to shine out in the very first word of the liturgy for the fourth Sunday of Lent. This strategy of allowing a part of Scripture to be read in the light of another is ubiquitous in the Gregorian repertoire; it is a typical feature and classical hermeneutical principle of patristic exegesis, through which Gregorian spirituality is deeply influenced.

THE SEASON OF LENT — Ever since the fourth century the Church has observed an annual forty-day period of preparation leading up to Easter (“Quadragesima”). The number forty occurs in several places in the Bible, symbolizing a period of preparation for a particular event or an encounter with God: it rained for forty days and nights during the Flood (Gen 7.12); Moses spent forty days and nights on Mount Sinai before God gave him his instructions for the people of Israel (Ex 24.18); the Israelites wandered through the desert for forty years (Ex 16.35); Elijah journeyed for forty days and nights to the mountain of Horeb where God spoke to him (1 Kings 19.8); Jesus fasted for forty days and nights in the wilderness in preparation for the momentous task that lay ahead (Lk 4.1).

Since the sixth century this penitential season, which we call Lent, has begun on Ash Wednesday. Each Sunday of Lent is known by the first word of the Introit appointed for that particular day: the first is “Invocabit” (from the Introit Invocabit me = When he calls to me), the second “Reminiscere” (from the Introit Reminiscere miserationum tuarum = Remember your mercies), the third “Oculi” (from the Introit Oculi mei semper ad Dominum = My eyes are always turned towards the Lord), the fourth “Laetare” (from the Introit Laetare Ierusalem = Rejoice, O Jerusalem). The fifth Sunday of Lent, also known as the first Passion Sunday, bears the name “Judica” (from the Introit Iudica me Deus = Vindicate me, O God). The second Passion Sunday, which marks the beginning of Holy Week, is known as Palm Sunday (“Palmarum”). A festival procession of palms commemorates Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem.

Of these Lenten Sundays the fourth, “Laetare”, stands apart. It marks the middle of Lent, halfway through the penitential season, and has always been an exception to the Lenten fast. The theological programme of “Laetare” Sunday is the joyful anticipation of redemption; in both liturgical text and liturgical colour (pink instead of purple) the joy of Easter is present. The intonation of the first word of the Introit Laetare, for example, unmistakably quotes the Easter Alleluia, thus linking the fourth Sunday of Lent to Easter Sunday from the very first liturgical utterance (see above).

Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM3
Monks singing psalms with God
between angels above
Parma, Monastery of S. Giovanni Battista,
ms F, 1486-88

CHOICE OF REPERTOIRE — The most important aspect of the Gregorian Lenten repertoire is not, as one might expect, repentance and fasting; rather we find at the centre of this liturgical and musical repertoire the neediness and unshakeable hope of humankind for help and salvation (Introit Invocabit me). The certainty that God will not abandon humankind (Grad. Angelis suis; Intr. Oculi mei), and that humankind, despite its finitude and sinfulness, and despite all its suffering not only may dare to hope for redemption but is already redeemed (Tract. Qui confidunt; Grad. Laetatus sum), runs like a golden thread throughout the Lenten biblical texts in their Gregorian versions. However, moments of utmost despair and obvious hopelessness (Off. Improperium), and of deepest disillusionment at the ingratitude and treachery of humankind (Popule meus) are neither suppressed nor extenuated.

The title of the CD “Exaudiam eum” – “I will answer him” – is borrowed from the Introit for the first Sunday of Lent. This promise from the mouth of God epitomizes the certainty that God will hear us, a fundamental theological motif of the Lenten penitential season which is rooted in the Easter mystery.

This recording presents chants from the five Sundays of Lent, Palm Sunday, and Good Friday. The Lenten Sundays are represented by their respective nominal Introits as well as by a Gradual or Communion. An exception is the fourth Sunday of Lent, of which the complete Mass Propers and three chants from the Ordinary have been included. The Communion Lutum fecit was chosen to correspond with the Gospel for 9 8 the fourth Sunday, “The man born blind” (Year A). Similarly, the Sanctus is preceded by its corresponding Preface. Palm Sunday is represented by its appointed Offertory Improperium. This particular chant and the Offertory Laudate Dominum from the fourth Sunday of Lent are examples of compositions that have long since disappeared from active liturgical use. The highly melismatic solo verses of these chants for the rite of the preparation of the gifts are found in manuscripts of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; their length allows us to conclude that this rite was a notably protracted affair even well into the late Middle Ages. Holy Week is represented by the Improperia from the Good Friday liturgy featuring the expressive Byzantine Trishagion; also from the Good Friday liturgy comes the sixth-century hymn Crux fidelis, which speaks of the cross – the central symbol of Christendom – as the tree of life. The recording ends with the Gradual Christus factus est; originally a chant for Maundy Thursday, it is today associated with Palm Sunday and Good Friday. The responsum and verse of this Gradual convey the contrast between life and death, cross and resurrection, humiliation and exaltation in a particularly impressive and evocative manner.

Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM4
Monks with pluviale in the Choir
Venice, Abbey San Giorgio,
ca. 1470
INTERPRETATION AND RESTORATION OF MELODIES — Consortium Vocale Oslo bases its interpretation of chant on the rules of Gregorian semiology as indicated in the oldest adiastematic manuscripts. The principle aim therewith is to present the chants in their original, free, word-informed rhythm, infused with musical and spiritual expressivity.

With the exception of the Improperia of Good Friday the melodies here have been corrected in accordance with adiastematic and diastematic neumatic manuscripts. Thus this recording adheres to criteria for melodic correction proposed by the Melody Restoration Committee of the International Society for the Study of Gregorian Chant (AISCGre). The group only implements corrections where the findings of comparative studies of the manuscripts appear unequivocal; in other cases the versions as published by the Editio Vaticana are left unchanged. Restoration of the Improperia of Good Friday has been refrained from entirely due to the disparate and barely assessable nature of the source material.

A good number of the restored melodic versions of the Lenten chants, with corresponding scientific apparatus, have been published in the periodical Beitrдge zur Gregorianik (ConBrio, Regensburg). Alexander M. Schweitzer 2007

Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM6
Consortium Vocale Oslo is the male vocal ensemble of Oslo Cathedral. Under the leadership of Alexander M. Schweitzer, the group since 1998 has specialised in the study of Gregorian chant. Consortium Vocale Oslo is a member of the International Society for the Study of Gregorian Chant (AISCGre) and bases its interpretation of this music on the evidence of the early manuscripts.

The ensemble has performed in concert and in liturgy in a number of European countries. In 2002 Consortium Vocale Oslo together with Schweitzer released the CD Laus mea Dominus on the British label ASV Gaudeamus. At the international choral competition Guido di Arezzo in Arezzo, Italy in 2004 the ensemble was awarded first prize in the category “Canto monodico cristiano” as well as the special prize “Domenico Cieri”.

Распевный аскетизм. Это если в двух словах. Монофонная мелодия, симбиоз слова (декламация) и песни – об этом в буклете. Для неподготовленного слушателя может показаться скучным, хотя как фоновое звучание не напрягает совсем. Этому способствуют два момента: исполнение, оно – безукоризненное, и запись – Линдберг с пониманием преподносит это, достаточно
Consortium Vocale Oslo EXAUDIAM EUM5
скромное звучание. Архаику надо украсит, но не злоупотребляя. Вот Линдберг и воспользовался естественностью церковной акустики. Церковь небольшая, остается правильно поставить певцов и микрофоны. Последние поставлены как бы для записи не певцов, а звука в храме. Микрофоны сведены почти в точку (в сравнении с размерами помещения и приподняты чуть ли не на две высоты исполнителей, ну а дальше простая техника: дискретизация с очень высокой частотой 24/352.8. Результат же, на распевах вас окружает звук, но при этом четкая локализация исполнителей. Вот от сюда и появляется ненавязчивость звучания.

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