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> Buxtehude "Membra Jesu Nostri", SACD

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post 9/08/2009, 22:48
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BUXTEHUDE "Membra Jesu Nostri", SACD

Buxtehude "Membra Jesu Nostri" , SACD

Гибридный SACD 5.0

Genre: Classical – Vocal, Instrumental

Jos van Veldhoven conductor

Anne Grimm soprano
Johannette Zomer soprano
Peter de Groot alto
Andrew Tortise tenor
Bas Ramselaar bass

    Membra Jesu Nostri BuxWV75
  1. I Ad pedes 'Ecce super montes' 8.26
  2. II Ad genua 'Ad ubera portabimini' 8.07
  3. III Ad manus 'Quid sunt plagae istae' 10.15
  4. IV Ad latus 'Surge arnica mea' 7.32
  5. V Ad pectus 'Sicut modo geniti infantes' 9.40
  6. VI Ad Cor 'Vulnerasti cor meum' 10.50
  7. VII Ad faciem 'Illustra faciem tuam' 7.15

    Fried- und Freudenreiche Hinfahrth BuxWV76
  8. Mit Fried und Freud ich fahr dahin 5.06
  9. Contrapunctus I/Evolutio/Contrapunctus II/Evolutio
  10. Klagelied: 'Muß der Tod denn auch entbinden' 4.35
    Johannette Zomer soprano

    Total time 72.25

Recording location: Waalse Kerk, Amsterdam, Holland
Recording date: November 2005
Producer: Walter van Hauwe
Recording engineer/editing: C. Jared Sacks
Cover: Calvary, Abraham Bloemaert 1629, oil on canvas, 260 x 190,5 cm Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht

Channel Classics Records (CCS SA 24006, 7 23385 24006 8), 2006
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post 9/08/2009, 22:54
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Цитата( буклет )
It is now fairly certain that Dietrich Buxtehude (1637-1707) was a student of Heinrich Scheidemann, organist in Hamburg and a student of Sweelinck. Buxtehude's studies would have occurred around 1655. At this time his fellow student was Johann Adamsz Reincken of Deventer, who would become his lifelong friend. Thanks to this friendship, he became one of that impressive group of organist-composers from the Baltic area, known collectively as the 'Sweelinck school'. Their elevated, 'learned' composing style and virtuosity as performers and improvisers amounted to a carefully guarded 'secret' which could only be transmitted among the members of this guild, from teacher to student. While the first generation of Sweelinck's students, the most important of whom was Scheidemann, confined themselves primarily to organ playing and composing for the organ, their students, in turn, went a step further. They assembled a small group of singers and instrumentalists around the organ for the performance of refined, elevated vocal music, inspired by the new concertante vocal styles of Italy. Freed from liturgical requirements, they chose texts, both Latin and German, which offered the most fruitful possibilities for expression in music.

Another second generation member of this school was Gustav Düben (c. 1629-1690), son of Sweelinck pupil Andreas Düben and capellmeister at the Swedish court of Stockholm. Gustav, as well, travelled to Hamburg as a young man to study with Scheidemann, and it is likely that he visited Buxtehude in Lübeck (where he had been organist of the Marienkirche since 1668). Düben himself was apparently not that gifted as a composer, but, seemingly in compensation, he accumulated an enormous collection of vocal and instrumental music which has survived, largely intact, in the Uppsala University Library; unfortunately the organ music has disappeared. A significant portion of the collection consists of Buxtehude's cantatas, among which the seven-part cycle Membra Jesu Nostri (1680) occupies a special position. In addition, it is one of the few Buxtehude autograph sources which survive in Uppsala, including an extensive dedication to Düben.

The way in which this piece was transmitted is typical for the North German Sweelinck school. Not only were both Buxtehude and Düben members of this group, but the notation style is also distinctive. For one thing, Buxtehude copied the piece in German organ tabulature, in which all the notes are written out as letters, with attendant symbols for rhythm (see illustration 2, p. 35). Buxtehude had various reasons for using this notation, which was rather unusual for vocal music. In the first place, tabulature, which was obsolete as a notation type even at that time, was a useful kind of 'secret writing' for North German organists, used essentially only for organ music. In the second place, this kind of notation is extremely economical with paper, a significant argument in its favor at the time, particularly for music which was to be sent abroad. It was undoubtedly intended as a sort of file, and Düben would first have to write out the separate parts in conventional notation before the piece could be performed (these written-out parts also survive at Uppsala).

A particular example of the freedom enjoyed by this 'organists' music' can be seen in the highly un-liturgical choice of texts. The text is based on the medieval passion hymn cycle, 'Salve mundi, salutare', which dates back, at least in part, to the poet Arnulf von Löwen (c. 1200-1250). It is a passionately mystical text in the form of seven meditations on the various body parts of the crucified Christ, — in succession the feet, knees, hands, side, breast, heart, and face. In i7th-century Protestant Germany, characterized by the pursuit of a new kind of introversion, mysticism, and individual piety, this text became extremely popular under the title of 'Rhytmica oratio sancti Bernardi', appearing in numerous different versions, translations, and rewritings. The famous 'O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden' [O sacred Head, sore wounded] by Paul Gerhardt, familiar to us all from Bach's St. Matthew Passion, is inspired by the same tradition.

In Membra Jesu Nostri, Buxtehude adds an appropriate biblical quotation to each poem, as a motto. Here the composer makes use of a formal scheme which he otherwise applied exclusively to German texts. The biblical quotation is set concertante, with all the instrumentalists and vocalists, while three strophes of each of the seven hymn texts are chosen for setting as a vocal 'aria' (without repetition of text, and essentially accompanied only by the continuo). As a rule, these three arias are all written over the same bass line. The piece as a whole is formally rounded off by an instrumental introduction and intermezzi (ritornelli) between the aria sections, finishing with a repetition of the biblical 'concerto':

Concerto: tutti
Aria — ritornello — aria — ritornello — aria — ritornello
Concerto da capo

As a basic scoring, Buxtehude uses an ensemble of five soloists (two sopranos, alto, tenor, and bass), two violins, and continuo; he varies the scoring at a couple of strategic points.
The biblical quotations usually make reference to the body part named in the title of the specific cantata. All of these texts, with one exception, are drawn from the Old Testament. The exception is to be founds in fifth cantata, Ad pectus ('To the breast'). Buxtehude here uses a fragment from the first letter of St. Peter as his motto, where reference is made to the newborn child who longs for good milk, as a metaphor for the longing for divine protection. In this way the breast becomes not only part of Christ's body but also a nurturing feminine breast and symbol of divine love. This atmosphere of nurturing is expressed in sound by Buxtehude by leaving out the two highest vocal parts (the sopranos), giving the whole cantata a unique tone color.

It is important for Buxtehude, in spite of the rigidly formal setup, to give each cantata its own personality, and at the same time to produce an effective whole which can be performed in its entirety as an oratorio. For example, the first aria of the first cantata is set for the complete ensemble, and the repetition of the biblical chorus in the last cantata is replaced by a compelling concerted 'Amen' which crowns the cycle as a whole. The tonalities are carefully varied, the variation in settings elaborately planned. Just as the setup, after four identically scored cantatas, threatens to become monotonous, Buxtehude, as we have seen, varies the scoring. In the sixth cantata, Ad Cor, he then proceeds to his prize move: the violins (and the violoncello) are silenced, and in their place a five-voiced gamba consort is engaged, resulting in a new, silvery tonal universe. At the same time, the erotic undertone of the 'Rhytmica oratio' clearly comes to the fore: the biblical motto is drawn from the Song of Songs ('You have wounded my heart, my sister, my bride'), and the thinned-out, 'polar' vocal scoring with two sopranos and bass appears to symbolize the presence of man and woman. The sound of the gambas, frequently associated with suffering and death in German Baroque music, underscores the closeness of love for the suffering Christ to the longing for death.

This cycle, which is clearly not intended for liturgical use and dedicated to his friend Gustav Düben, must indubitably be seen as an expression of Buxtehude's own religious experience and personal devotion. In fact, we know unusually little about this great musician; no personal letters or anecdotes have survived. His music speaks to us all the more powerfully — especially the Membra Jesu Nostri, with its highly personal combination of introverted expressivity, deliberately simple declamation (here and there it can even be called naive), and great harmonic richness. No matter how alien the content of the medieval Latin text may be to our 21st-century sensibilities, it nevertheless inspired Buxtehude to produce a visionary setting, in a vivid cycle of compositions which still go straight to our hearts.

Pieter Dirksen
Translation: David Shapero

Бухстехуде – органист, его органные произведения этого талантливого импровизатора-виртуоза, наверно самого яркого до Баха, не очень часто звучат, а уж оратории и подавно. Про все творчество – страничка учебника, так, что информация из буклета – всё, что есть. Простые, милые, когда надо страстные мелодии, полифонически не упрощенные, они украшены исполнением: отличное соло вокала и сочное сопровождение Голландского баховского общества. Сонтинуо – контрабас с высоко расположенным органом, его звук оказывается сверху. Гамбы и теорбо не подыгрывают, а контрапунктируют с вокалом. Содержание хотя и библейское, но предполагалось скорее светское исполнение. Эта музыка своей размеренностью легко воспринимается в фоновом состоянии, такой ненавязчивый салонный стиль. Два сопрано хорошо ярко выражены на фоне приниженного по частоте сопровождения. Причем у Гримм голос звонкий, его украшает эхо помещения, а вот у Цомер сочное сопрано, она берет не силой, а красотой голоса. В целом, красивая, познавательная работа.

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