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Перейти к полной версии: Handel / Arte dei Suonatori / Martin Gester "12 Concerti grossi, Opus 6" (SACD)
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Hдndel / Arte dei Suonatori / Martin Gester "12 Concerti grossi, Opus 6" 3SACD

HДNDEL, Georg Friedrich (1685-1759)
Concerti grossi, Op. 6


Genre: Classical – Orchestra

Гибридный SACD 5.0

Arte dei Suonatori conducted by Martin Gester
Aureliusz Goliński, Ewa Golińska, violins
Thomas Pitt (Nos 4,6,7,8, 10 & 11) / David Gammelgеrd (Nos 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12), cello

Violins: Aureliusz Goliński, Ewa Golińska, Marta Mamulska,
Violetta Szopa-Tomczyk, Adam Pastuszka, Martyna Pastuszka, Anna Nowak

Violas: Dymitr Olszewski, Bodo Lonartz

Cellos: Thomas Pitt, Claire Thirion (Nos 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11)
David Gammelgеrd, Poppy Walshaw (Nos l, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12)

Double bass: Stanislaw Smołka

Harpsichord/organ: Joanna Boślak-Gуrniok

Martin Gester (organ in No. 2)

Theorbo/archlute: Andreas Arend

Total Time 163'39

Disc 1 [62'32]
    Concerto grosso No. 1 in G major, HWV319 11'15
  1. I. A tempo giusto 1'33
  2. II. Allegro e forte 1'45
  3. III.Adagio 2'28
  4. IV. Allegro 2'29
  5. V. Allegro 2'56

    Concerto grosso No. 2 in F major, HWV320 11'49
  6. I. Andante larghetto 4'17
  7. II. Allegro 2'20
  8. III. Largo - Larghetto andante 2'45
  9. IV. Allegro ma non troppo 2'25

    Concerto grosso No. 3 in E minor, HWV321 11'36
  10. I. Larghetto 1'14
  11. II. Andante 1'56
  12. III. Allegro 2'26
  13. IV. Polonaise. Andante 4'30
  14. V. Allegro ma non troppo 1'24

    Concerto grosso No. 4 in A minor, HWV322 11'28
  15. I. Larghetto affettuoso 2'58
  16. II. Allegro 3'14
  17. III. Largo e piano 2'28
  18. IV. Allegro 2'46

    Concerto grosso No. 5 in D major, HWV323 14'50
  19. I. Ouverture. Larghetto e staccato 1'34
  20. II. Allegro 2'09
  21. III. Presto 3'24
  22. IV. Largo 2'18
  23. V. Allegro 2'30
  24. VI. Menuet. Un poco larghetto 2'52
Disc 2 [72'03]
    Concerto grosso No. 6 in G minor, HWV324 15'16
  1. I. Largo e affettuoso 3'18
  2. II. A tempo giusto 1'43
  3. III. Musette. Larghetto 5'07
  4. IV. Allegro 3'03
  5. V. Allegro 2'04

    Concerto grosso No. 7 in B flat major, HWV325 13'36
  6. I. Largo 1'04
  7. II. Allegro 2'50
  8. III. Largo e piano 2'56
  9. IV. Andante 3'41
  10. V. Hornpipe 3'04

    Concerto grosso No. 8 in C minor, HWV326 15'05
  11. I. Allemande. Andante 6'26
  12. II. Grave 1'47
  13. III. Andante allegro 1'46
  14. IV. Adagio 1'09
  15. V. Siciliana. Andante 2'54
  16. VI Allegro 1'03

    Concerto grosso No. 9 in F major, HWV327 12'38
  17. I. Largo 1'32
  18. II.Allegro 3'39
  19. III. Larghetto 2'24
  20. IV. Allegro 1'55
  21. V. Menuet 1'16
  22. VI. Gigue. Allegro 1'48

    Concerto grosso No. 1o in D minor, HWV328 13'54
  23. I. Ouverture - Allegro 3'45
  24. II. Air. Lentement 3'25
  25. III. Allegro 2'14
  26. IV. Allegro 2'43
  27. V. Allegro moderato 1'41
Disc 3 [29'04]
    Concerto grosso No. 11 in A major, HWV329 16'29
  1. I. Andante larghetto e staccato 3'57
  2. II. Allegro — Largo e staccato 7'25
  3. III. Andante 4'16
  4. IV. Allegro 5'48

    Concerto grosso No. 12 in B minor, HWV330 11'39
  5. I. Largo 1'50
  6. II. Allegro 3'10
  7. III. Aria. Larghetto e piano 3'53
  8. IV. Largo 0'46
  9. V. Allegro 1'55

Recording Data
Recorded in July 2007 (Nos 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11) and November 2007 (Nos 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12) at the Radio Hall, Wroclaw, Poland
Recording producers: Hans Kipfer (Nos 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11), Dirk Lьdemann (Nos 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12)
Sound engineers: Dirk Lьdemann (Nos 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11), Andreas Ruge (Nos 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12)
Digital editing: Elisabeth Kemper (Nos 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 & 11), Dirk Lьdemann (Nos 1, 2, 3, 5, 9 & 12)
Executive producer: Robert Suff

BIS Records AB, Еkersberga (BIS-SACD-1705/06, 7 318591 705062), 2008
Цитата( буклет )
Twelve Grand Concertos

None of the opera companies founded to promote Italian opera in early eighteenth-century London succeeded in making a sustained impact. The Royal Academy of Music (1719-28), Handel's partnerships with John Jacob Heidegger at the King's Theatre (1729-34) and with John Rich at Covent Garden (1734-37), and the Opera of the Nobility (1733-37): all of these struggled to cope with the financial strain of importing expensive singers from Italy and with the unpredictable tides of audience attendance. Some hit operas for each company barely masked the fact that the enterprises depended squarely on the generosity of aristocratic patrons with deep pockets. By autumn 1739 Handel gradually slowed his involvement with producing Italian operas for the London stage, but perhaps this was largely because of his recent serious illness in 1737 and his advancing age. Now fifty-four years of age, the Saxon-born composer was comfortably settled in London; he had lived in his own (leased) home on Brook Street for sixteen years, and had become a naturalized British citizen in 1727. Rather than pursue an operatic career abroad, he preferred to adapt his art to the taste of the town, and discovered a new lease of artistic life by producing English odes, oratorios and music dramas.

Between January and May 1739 Handel ran a series of fifteen concerts at the King's Theatre, which included the premieres of Saul and Israel in Egypt, although Italian operatic entertainment was still represented by Giove in Argo, a pasticcio in which he re-used music from his own earlier works. For his next concert series, the composer decided to present a season of entirely English works at John Rich's old theatre at Lincoln's Inn Fields. He planned to commence the season on St Cecilia's Day (22nd November), with his settings of Dryden's Cecilian odes Alexander's Feast (first performed in 1736) and the Song for St Cecilia (receiving its premiиre in between the two parts of the larger ode). He completed composing the Song for St Cecilia on 24th September 1739, but did not rest for long. Only five days later, Handel commenced work on twelve concerti grossi. Working at a prolific rate, he completed all twelve by 30th October. There was every good reason for him to be cheerful and optimistic; he had industriously produced his supreme orchestral masterpieces. Six days before the opening night of the season, the composer visited the 4th Earl of Shaftesbury, who enthusiastically wrote to their mutual friend James Harris that '[Handel] is now in the room & tells me, he shall perform the Ode & the new short one twice. He has twelve concerto's coming out by subscription & is like to be a good one.'

Handel deliberately prepared his new orchestral compositions as a set for publication. Twelve was the standard number of concertos for the popular Italian masters of instrumental music (e.g. Corelli, Albinoni and Vivaldi), and it seems that Handel - renowned as a writer for singers and as an organist - took this as an opportunity to prove his stature as an instrumental composer. Only one day after completing the concertos, Handel and his official publisher John Walsh junior were awarded an authorized licence by George II for 'the sole Engraving, Printing, and Publishing' of the composer's music 'for the Term of Fourteen Years'. It strictly forbade 'all Our loving Subjects within our Kingdoms and Dominions to reprint or abridge the same, either in the like or in any other Size or Manner whatsoever; or to import, buy, vend, utter, or distribute any Copy or Copies thereof, reprinted beyond the Seas, during the aforesaid Term of fourteen Years'. The timing of this renewed 'Copyright Privilege' was a deliberate ploy to capitalize upon Handel's new concertos. Walsh's proposai for a luxurious subscription edition was printed in the London Daily Post, and described it as 'Twelve Grand Concerto's, in Seven Parts, for four Violins, a Tenor [i.e. viola], a Violoncello, with a Thorough-Bass for the Harpsichord. Compos'd by Mr. Handel.' The proposal, which was published a day before the composer had actually finished the twelfth concerto, explained that:

1. The Price to Subscribers is Two Guineas, One Guinea to be paid at the Time of Subscribing, and the other on the Delivery of the Books.
2. The whole will be engraven in a neat Character, printed on good Paper, and ready to deliver to Subscribers by April next.
3. The Subscribers Names will be printed before the Work. Subscriptions are taken by the Author, at his Home in Brook's-street, Hanover-square; and John Walsh in Catherine-street in the Strand.

Although collections of favourite songs from Handel's operas were common projects for Walsh, it was unprecedented for the two men to collaborate quite so closely on an ambitious and grand publication of instrumental music. The Twelve Grand Concertos turned out to be Handel's only orchestral works published by subscription. 100 individuals and organisations subscribed for 122 copies, and the publication of the music was announced in the London Daily Post on 21st April 1740 as 'Twelve Grand Concerto's for Violins, in Seven Parts... Those Gentlemen who are subscribers are desired to send for their Books to the Author; or J. Walsh'.

The list of subscribers features a fascinating mixture of professional musicians, Handel's friends, cultural figures and royalty (although, strangely, George II did not subscribe; perhaps he was presented with a complimentary copy!). Princesses Anne, Amelia, Caroline, Mary and Louisa all subscribed to their old music teacher's collection, as did their brother, the Duke of Cumberland. London musicians William De Fesch and Charles Weidman both ordered copies. The 'Crown and Anchor Society' and the 'Philharmonic Society at the Crown and Anchor' received copies. Music societies in Oxford, Salisbury and Dublin ordered Handel's new orchestral music. His friends James Harris, Bernard Granville, Sir Wyndham Knatchbull and the Earl of Shaftesbury all subscribed, and Charles Jennens - librettist of Saul, Messiah and Belshazzar -bought two sets. It is particularly intriguing that John Rich (manager of Covent Garden Theatre) ordered three sets, and Jonathan Tyers (manager of Vauxhall Gardens) purchased four; both men presumably intended to have Handel's new music played in their respective establishments by their house bands.

Ever the pragmatist, Handel performed eight of the Twelve Grand Concertos in his concerts at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre before they were published. Unfortunately, we do not know which concertos were used on which occasions, but advertisements in the London Daily Post reveal that two were featured with Alexander's Feast and the Song for St Cecilia's Day on 22nd November 1739, and another two were performed with the revival of Acis and Galatea on 13th December. An exceptionally cold winter caused a delay to further performances until 27th February 1740, when the new Miltonic ode L' Allegro, il Penseroso ed il Moderato was premiered 'With two new Concerto's for several Instruments, and a new Concerto on the Organ' (the newspaper also noted that 'Particular Care is taken to have the House secur'd against the Cold, constant Fires being order'd to be kept in the House 'till the Time of Performance'). One of the concerti grossi was performed with Saul on 21st March (and repeated in Esther five days later), and another was included with Israel in Egyp t on 1st April. Two days after they were published, another couple were featured in performances of L' Allegro. These figures suggest that ten of the twelve concerti grossi were performed during Handel's concert season. It is unlikely that he used Nos 9 and 11, which were both based on recent organ concertos.

Handel's autograph score of the Twelve Grand Concertos, now in the British Library, reveals that the music was meticulously crafted. The set, as originally published, commences with No. 1 in G major (HWV 319; completed 29th September 1739). The composer altered the tempo marking, probably from Andante, to A tempo giusto, showing his concern to get the personality of the music exactly right. This leads into an Allegro e forte, which fizzes with lively intelligence. The central Adagio[i] is an eloquent E minor that seems closer to Vivaldi than Handel's orchestral writing usually is. The next playful [i]Allegro features a witty pianissimo ending. The concluding movement, like several more throughout the set, is modelled on keyboard suites from Gottlieb Muffat's Componimenti musicali. No. 2 in F major (HWV 320; completed 4th October 1739) opens with a gentle Andante larghetto. Handel's autograph reveals that he initially intended that the second movement would be an F minor Larghetto, but he considered it more effective to instead add an Adagio linking passage to a bright D minor  Allegro. Thematic material in the measured finale (Allegro ma non troppo) foreshadows part of the chorus 'Let us break their bonds asunder' (Messiah).

No. 3 in E minor (HWV 321; completed 6th October 1739) starts with an eloquent Larghetto. The subsequent Andante and Allegro remain based in E minor, but it is astonishing how imaginatively Handel spins the musical development of his material. The Polonaise is a beautifully sculpted pastoral dance with drone-like bass notes. Handel's attention to detail is also evident in his decision to change the tempo marking of the opening movement of No. 4 in A minor (HWV 322; completed 8th October 1739). In his manuscript it was initially marked Andante, but it was altered to Larghetto affettuoso for the Walsh edition. It has one of the loveliest opening phrases in the set, with an extraordinary chromatic modulation in the first violins. The next movement remains in A minor, but is a magnificently developed fugue. The Largo e piano has a creeping bass line with pairs of slurred notes, and the delicate effect of the unfolding music is reminiscent of an operatic sleep scene. Handel originally planned to end the concerto with this movement, but then decided to restore A minor tonality in a tautly developed Allegro.

Much of the autograph score of No. 5 in D major (HWV 323) is now lost, but it shares material with the overture to the Song for St Cecilia, and the surviving fragment of the concerto reveals that Handel completed it on 10th October 1739. The opening is marked Ouverture: Larghetto e staccato. Based on material from Muffat's Componimenti musicali, it is among the most charismatic and theatrically potent of Handel's orchestral works. The triple-time Presto is notable for its sudden dynamic extremes. In contrast, the opening Largo e affettuoso of No. 6 in G minor (HWV 324) has an exquisitely suspended musical mood, with dramatic use of unexpected double and triple stopping before pulling back to softness. It was initially numbered the seventh concerto in Handel's autograph score, and the composer seems to have gone to a particularly large amount of trouble over this concerto. The Musette in E flat major shows his fondness for delicacy and tenderness in dance forms, but considerable self-restraint was exercised in order to create direct simplicity: many bars of material were deleted from his compositional draft. Its juxtaposition with the skilfully constructed 'fast' middle section produces one of the most exhilarating movements in the entire set. Handel signed No. 6 as completed on 15th October 1739, but he subsequently revised the concerto's scheme to replace an unfinished Gavotte with two contrasting G minor Allegros, the first of which is a brilliant flurry of musical activity which brings to mind Vivaldi's violin concertos.
No. 7 in B flat major (HWV325; completed 12th October 1739) was initially numbered the eighth concerto in Handel's manuscript. The second movement is a vivid Allegro, and the central Largo e piano unfurls with remarkable elegance and sentimentality. It not only pulls the listener through some fabulous harmonic developments, but also charms like a soft courtly dance. The concerto concludes with a playful Hornpipe (based on music by Muffat), in which the rhythmic accents reveal something of Handel's sense of humour. A very different tone and personality is evident in the opening Allemande of No. 8 in C minor (HWV326; completed 18th October 1739). In the second Grave section, the violence of the opening stabbing figure, followed by a lyrical interlude, before the return of the persistent stabbing motif, is like an intense accompanied recitative for a prima donna, and it leads into an Andante allegro that is borrowed from an aria in Handel's old Venetian opera Agrippina. The opera references continue with the next movement, an Adagio based on Cleopatra's 'Piangerт la sorte mia' (Giulio Cesare), although the composer kept the quotation brief, and departed from the source of the borrowing on the last chord of the opening phrase. This links to a Siciliana, a form he often used for particularly sentimental lament arias. It seems that in this concerto Handel consciously explored his connections with the musical moods and characteristics of his Italian operas.

He removed the overture from his autograph draft of Imeneo[i] in order to construct [i]No. 9 in F major (HWV 327), which also borrows material from the Organ Concerto in F major (HWV 295, 'The Cuckoo and the Nightingale'). The passages originally written for Handel to play himself at the organ were re-composed as highly effective concertino parts. The opening of No. 10 in D minor (HWV 328; completed 22nd October 1739) is an operatic Ouverture, and is followed by a vigorous Allegro. The Lentement was initially marked Lent e piano, but Handel then decided that he did not want the opening to be quiet. He altered it to start loudly, and then used marked contrasts every few bars to veer between surprising forcefulness in forte passages and tender melancholy in pianissimo passages. The sombre central Allegro is followed by a more impassioned and extrovert Allegro, and the shimmering D major finale is another deliberate contrast in mood. In fact, the extremity of the swings in musical mood during this concerto - whether they are suddenly achieved within movements or created by strongly characterized contrasts between consecutive movements - invites speculation that it was one of the concertos Handel composed specifically for use in L' Allegro, an ode in which John Milton's poetry explores the seemingly irreconcilable emotions of mirth and melancholy.

No. 11 in A major (HWV 329; completed 30th October 1739) is an arrangement of Handel's recent Organ Concerto in A major (HWV 296a), which had been composed the previous March for a revival of Alexander's Feast. The new version of the music is not merely a transcription of the organ concerto because the concertino group adds a new layer of harmonic sophistication, and the exuberant finale is arguably even better in its concerto grosso guise. Completed on 20th October 1739, No. 12 in B minor (HWV 330) was not the last of the twelve concertos to be composed, but it is intriguing that Handel decided to position it last in his magnum opus. The second movement is a startling Allegro, in which the tense instrumental lines are stretched far beyond the music's original scope as the bass voice aria Nel mondo e nell'abisso (Riccardo Primo). After a densely contrapuntal Largo, the Twelve Grand Concertos conclude with an Allegro that Handel based on a harpsichord suite by the Halle organist Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow. Perhaps it was a grateful gesture for the famous London-based composer to conclude his grandest orchestral project with a private tribute to his boyhood teacher.

The Twelve Grand Concertos became known as 'Opus 6' when the second edition was published in 1741, in accordance with the numbering of Walsh's printed collections of Handel's instrumental music. Op. 6 is widely regarded as Handel's orchestral masterpiece, occupying a status alongside Bach's Brandenburg Concertos as the finest instrumental music of the High Baroque. Bach used a wider variety of solo instruments, but did not compose his six concertos as a set. Handel brought inexhaustible inventiveness and extraordinary subtlety to an integral set of twelve concertos that are simply scored for two solo violinists, cellist, continuo, and ripieno (i.e. tutti) strings (although the autographs of Nos 7, 2, 5 and 6 feature parts for two oboes). The careful planning of key-schemes, broad variety of movement types, and range of musical characters within Op. 6 present a powerful testament to Handel's expressive and structural versatility. If works such as the Coronation Anthems and Judas Maccabaeus show his skill at making a bombastic impact on a general audience, Op. 6 shows him reaching out to the connoisseur. Modern listeners willing to pay close attention to every moment of each concerto will find them to be a supremely crafted treasure trove of delightful surprises.

© David Vickers 2008

Цитата( К.Розеншильд. История зарубжной музыки)
Op. 6 включает двенадцать Concerti grossi, изданных в 1739 По трактовке жанра Гендель здесь ближе всего к Корелли. По сравнению с органными, оркестровые концерты проще, строже по мелодике и фактуре, более лаконичны в композиционном строении И здесь «разработочные» части (или эпизоды) Allegro богаты мотивными дроблениями и модуляционной работой, прокладывающей пути к классической сонате-симфонии мангеймского или венского типа.

В контрастных чередованиях concertino и tutti, пластов гомофонного и имитационно-полифонического склада достигнуты великолепные эффекты светотени или своеобразной «ритмичной пульсации» оркестровой ткани. При этом нужно иметь в виду, что Concerti grossi все же преимущественно гомофонны по складу музыки. Состав оркестра также близок Корелли, хотя и усилен за счет ripieni (Дополнительные инструменты в составе tutti) в grosso, за счет духовых — по немецкой традиции — в concertino. Строение концертного цикла у Генделя разнообразно. Есть двух-, трех-, четырех-, пяти-, шестичастные концерты. Одни (например, ор. 6 № 7, B-dur) имеют черты старинной циклической сонаты, другие (например, ор. 6 № 9 с менуэтом и жигой) скорее приближаются к сюите. Части цикла рельефно сопоставлены друг с другом или контрастно противостоят друг другу. Гендель любит прослаивать сонатную или увертюрную схему отдельными сюитными номерами — танцевальными либо песенными. Ор. 6 № 8, c-moll, открывается аллемандой. В № 6 — g-moll — пасторальная интермедия «Мюзетт» близка Angelus'y Рождественского концерта Корелли. Пятый, D-dur'ный концерт того же opus'a радует подчеркнуто бытовым, «предгайдновским» менуэтом, как бы юмористически пропущенным сквозь «лупу времени» (Un poco larghetto). В концерт e-moll, ор. 6 № 3, по саксоно-тюрингенской традиции, введен блестящий полонез. В d-moll'ном — десятом из того же opus'a — французская увертюра и ария подчеркивают оперные связи Concerti grossi, a они широки: темы ариозные (в лирических медленных частях), увертюрные (во вступительных Grave, Largo) звучат там на каждом шагу. Более того, Гендель прямо вводил в Concerti grossi оперные номера (например, увертюру «Амадиса Галльского» в Четвертый «гобойный» концерт), а отдельные части концертов — в оперы (например, в партитуру «Отгона»). Он делал это потому, что пластическая театральность его тематизма естественно располагала к этим музыкальным «пересадкам».

Каждому концерту свойственны особые жанровые связи, особый образно-поэтический облик и выразительный тонус высказывания.

В основе концерта F-dur, ор. 6 № 2— жанрово переосмысленная пастораль. Нельзя не услышать интонации-предвестницы «Патетической сонаты» Бетховена в Largo героического h-moll'ного концерта ор. 6 № 12. Этот доминирующий облик, или тонус цикла обычно оттенен, иногда драматически углублен явлением образов контрастного плана. В знаменитом g-moll'ном концерте ор. 6 после меланхолического Larghetto и угрюмой, «колючей» фуги является солнечная и ласковая пастораль, а посреди торжественно-сумрачных образов концерта c-moll (№ 8) — тончайшая по письму, моцартовски лирическая сицилиана.

Почти трехчасовая запись. Уже нет вивальдиевской задорности третьего опуса, всё солиднее, глубже, только темы от рыжего изредка мелькают. На осмысление сборника пары прогонов не хватить. Это предстоит переварить и не раз. А сейчас, на вскидку (после шести часов!) можно о записи сказать немного. Оркестр звучит по глубине как и Гармонии Мунди Ор.3 только еще шире, хотя зал похожий. И более сочные басы, но это уже от Генделя. Ну еще Гестер достаточно тяжело дышит. Вот такое превью.

Музыка – 10
Запись – 10
Многоканальность - 10
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