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Перейти к полной версии: George Crumb / Ellen Ugelvik "Makrokosmos I & II" (SACD)
Многоканальная Музыка > Многоканальная музыка > Аудиозаписи в современных форматах
George Crumb / Ellen Ugelvik "Makrokosmos I & II" SACD


Genre: Classical – Contemporary, Instrumental

SACD 5.1

    MAKROKOSMOS I (1972) 32:55

  1. Primeval Sounds (Genesis I) Cancer [G.R.] 04:34
  2. Proteus Pisces [W.R.C.] 00:53
  3. Pastorale (from the Kingdom of Atlantis, ca. 10,000 B.C.) Taurus [J.B.] 02:05
  4. Crucifixus [SYMBOL] Capricorn [R.L.F.] 02:53

  5. The Phantom Gondolier Scorpio [G.H.C.] 02:29
  6. Night-Spell I Sagittarius [A.W.] 03:24
  7. Music of Shadows (for Aeolian Harp) Libra [P.Z.] 02:52
  8. The Magic Circle of Infinity (Moto perpetuo) [SYMBOL] Leo [C.D.] 01:46

  9. The Abyss of Time Virgo [A.S.] 02:45
  10. Spring-Fire Aries [D.R.B.] 01:48
  11. Dream Images (Love-Death Music) Gemini [F.G.L.] 03:56
  12. Spiral Galaxy [SYMBOL] Aquarius [B.W.] 03:24

    MAKROKOSMOS II (1973) 32:24

  13. Morning Music (Genesis II) Cancer [J. DeG. W.] 02:17
  14. The Mystic Chord Sagittarius [R.M.] 02:45
  15. Rain-Death Variations Pisces [F.C.] 01:26
  16. Twin Suns (Doppelgдnger aus der Ewigkeit) [SYMBOL] Gemini [E.A.C.] 03:18

  17. Ghost-Nocturne: for the Druids of Stonehenge (Night-Spell II) Virgo [A.B.] 02:16
  18. Gargoyles Taurus [P.P.] 01:14
  19. Tora! Tora! Tora! (Cadenza Apocalittica) Scorpio [L.K.] 01:47
  20. A Prophecy of Nostradamus [SYMBOL] Aries [H.W.] 02:49

  21. Cosmic Wind Libra [S.B.] 02:36
  22. Voices from "Corona Borealis" Aquarius [E.M.C.] 05:08
  23. Litany of the Galactic Bells Leo [R.V.] 02:39
  24. Agnus Dei [SYMBOL] Capricorn [R.W.] 04:03

    Total Time 65:20

Recorded 18-21 May 2007 in Sofienberg church, Oslo
Producer and Editor: Tony Harrison
Engineer: Geoff Miles
Piano technician: Thron Irby
Photos: Observatoriet
Executive producer: Erik Gard Amundsen

SIMAX classics/ Grappa Musikkforlag AS (PSC 1263, 7 033662 012633), 2008
Цитата( Музыкальный словарь Гроува )
Крам (Крамб, Crumb), Джордж (Генри) (р. 24.10.1929, Чарлстон, Западная Виргиния). Американский композитор. Учился в Университете шт. Иллинойс, в Берлине у Блахера, в Мичиганском университете у Финны, преподавал в университетах шт. Колорадо (1959—64) и Пенсильвания (1965—97). Стиль К. складывался под преимущественным влиянием Малера, Дебюсси, Бартока, Мессиана. Крупные вокальные опусы 1960-х, вдохновленные поэзией Ф. Гарсиа Лорки, принесли К. репутацию одного из наиболее самобытных композиторов США. Следуя примеру Гарсиа Лорки, К. прихотливо сочетает символизм с натурализмом, инфантильность с чувственностью, изобретательность, выдающую руку современного мастера (необычные и изысканные сочетания тембров, тонкая игра динамических оттенков и микрохроматических интервалов, элементы пуантилизма), с простотой, местами доходящей до примитивности. Произведения К., как правило, многочастны; между отдельными частями действуют разветвленные системы перекрестных тематических ссылок. К. широко использует цитаты из произведений классиков, мелодические обороты и тембровые краски «экзотической» музыки, разного рода иллюстративные эффекты, в т. ч. необычные способы пения и инструментальной игры, сценическое движение и другие элементы театрализации. Некоторые опусы К. представляют собой отклики на современные события; так, вокальный цикл «Ночь четырех лун» создавался под впечатлением от первого полета астронавтов на Луну, а в программе квартета «Черные ангелы» отразилась духовная драма, пережитая в связи с вьетнамской войной. К числу любопытных находок К., получивших широкую известность, относится нотация целых пьес в форме креста, круга, спирали и других фигур.

Цитата( буклет )
by David Burge

George Crumb (b. 1929) was born and grew up in Charleston, West Virginia. The Crumbs were a close-knit family that blended West Virginian conservative traditions with devoted loyalty to one another; they all loved music, played instruments, and enjoyed performing together. The father, an accomplished clarinetist, had a large collection of classical scores, and as a boy George Crumb would study these by the hour, trying to figure out how all the parts sounded together. He developed a passion for reading and, with it, a lifelong fascination for the mysteries of life, the deeper aspects of humanity's relationship with nature, some of which could not, and should not, be thought, be explained, only expressed. (Much later, having written Night of the Four Moons as the Apollo 11 spacecraft took astronauts to the moon for the first time, he expressed a certain sorrow that human beings had set foot there; the moon would not be the same any more, he said, for some of its mystery was gone.)

Quiet and self-effacing, he demonstrated unusual talent as a teenage pianist and composer, writing dozens of pieces of various kinds. At the University of Illinois and later at the University of Michigan, where he studied with Ross Lee Finney, he continued to absorb music in great quantities, remembering everything he examined, piecing together, little by little, the musical ideas, sounds, and gestures that would, in a few years, emerge suddenly as his own unique and unprecedented style.

Crumb found particular reference to life's mysteries in the sounds of Debussy's music, the autobiographical confessions of the songs and symphonies of Mahler, as well as the poems of Rilke. He also found them in the magically evocative images of Garcнa Lorca, a Spanish poet whose language he did not speak but whose incisive linguistic concepts and sonorities were in tune with his own inner visions. Equally important, he learned about musical form from the classical masters and Bartуk, admired the transparent lyricism of Dallapiccola, and was profoundly affected by the ecstasies of carefully prepared, hyperromantic climaxes in the music of Alban Berg.

As a member of the faculty of the University of Colorado from 1959 until 1964, he, like many others at that time, became fascinated with the precision and craft of Webern's music. After the years of absorbing and digesting the music of so many others, the study of this carefully wrought, deeply expressive music seemed to provide Crumb with the final, cathartic impulse necessary to throw off past influences and begin writing in his own new style. Music began to flow out of him, not quickly, but steadily: Five Pieces for Piano (1962), Night Music I, for soprano, piano (celeste), and two percussionists (1963), Four Nocturnes for violin and piano (1964), the first two books of Madrigals (1965), Eleven Echoes of Autumn, for flute, clarinet, violin, and piano (1966). After that the progression was rapid and secure; Crumb moved in a very short time from being an unknown piano teacher to becoming the best-known American composer of his generation, winning every major prize and honor, receiving more commissions than he could accept in a lifetime, and being appointed to a prestigious position as a member of the composition faculty at the University of Pennsylvania. For a certain period in the 1970s he became a cult figure, an incongruous and uncomfortable position for a person of such shy demeanor, but one with which he had to contend despite himself. Such works as Ancient Voices of Children, for soprano, boy soprano, and seven instrumentalists, including pianist (1970), Black Angels, for string quartet (1970), and Voice of the Whale, for flute, cello, and piano (1971) captured the imagination of audiences as no other composer of the time could do. Crumb provided his listeners with something of the sensation of awe, wonder, and enigmatic beauty that he himself felt concerning the "mysteries." He named movements after geological eras, referred to images as coming from "the Dark Land," invented visual symbols for his scores, and concocted numerological schemes. For many listeners these extramusical trappings provided an avenue into the music itself, allowing them to listen to it openly and with interest rather than with resistance and skepticism.

The music itself is carefully wrought, hypnotic, ecstatic, no mere accompaniment to extramusical flights. It tends to be uncomplicated, often all foreground with little background and with a minimum of counterpoint. Crumb's masterful use of the most disparate, far-ranging sounds has tended to overshadow his harmonic consistency, just as his dramatic effects tend to obscure the care with which he plans sonority and range, which make these effects possible. Much of the music is tonal, sometimes traditionally so, as when he writes "in the style of" or quotes from an earlier composer's work.

The Five Pieces for Piano is the first work written in Crumb's mature style. In these five pieces, lasting less than ten minutes, the composer's meticulous attention to matters of compositional craft are clearly evident to anyone carefully studying the score. Nevertheless, when the work was first heard in concert in 1963, astonished audiences were so swept away by the totally unique nature of the sounds employed that they tended to be unaware of the craft which lay in every moment and gesture of the carefully conceived pieces. True, there had been earlier composers such as Henry Cowell who had explored sounds made by plucking or strumming the strings inside the piano, but such moments were always "special effects" rather than an integral part of the structure of the music. Put another way, the earlier music could actually all be played on the keys, and the piece would in no essential way be musically different. Crumb's use of these sounds, integrated into the heart of the music, would not allow the work to be played in any other way than the exact manner he specified.

Ten years after the Five Pieces for Piano, Crumb completed the two solo volumes of Makrokosmos. Each volume is subtitled Twelve Fantasy Pieces after the Zodiac for Amplified Piano. Each takes approximately thirty minutes to perform.

In the ten years between solo piano works, Crumb further developed special techniques for inside the piano, and his confidence as a composer had grown, allowing his imagination to follow more daring pursuits. Nevertheless, though the writing in the two Makrokosmos volumes may seem freer than in the Five Pieces, his attention to matters of compositional craft — harmonic consistency, sense of inner formal logic, careful use of sonorous contrasts, and sense of cumulative drama — is, if anything, stronger than before.

Crumb has stated that he used the two books of Preludes by Debussy, each of which has twelve pieces, each with a fanciful title, as a model for the two-volume solo Makrokosmos. In some of the titles of individual movements Crumb lets his fertile imagination run wild: "Pastorale (from the Kingdom of Atlantis, ca. 10,000 B.C.)," "Ghost-Nocturne: for the Druids of Stonehenge," "Tora! Tora! Tora! (Cadenza Apocalittica)." In others he links the title with a special "symbolic" manner of notating the movement, as in the "Crucifixus," notated as a cross, "The Magic Circle of Infinity," a circle, "Sprial Galaxies," a spiral, and so on.

In addition to the titles, each of the twenty-four pieces is labeled with a sign of the zodiac and with the initials of someone born under that sign — a friend, colleague, family member, or respected composer.

In both volumes the pianist is required not only to play in and out of the piano, but also must whistle, sing, shout, and whisper in various specified ways. Singing is always notated in the bass clef only because the pianist-dedicatees of each volume are men; women may transpose pitches up an octave. Whistling is notated at exact pitch; in both volumes the whistling requirements are demanding and will need (for most) practice over an extended period of time to develop range, breath control, and precise intonation in order to achieve an accurate and effective performance.

The two volumes of Makrokosmos are not difficult once the routines of playing inside the instrument are worked out and the vocal effects coordinated. Because of Crumb's harmonic consistency, and because in these volumes he uses relatively simple, small forms of individual pieces, the music is easily memorized, a necessity if only because the pianist needs to look at what he or she is doing.

The effect of either volume on an audience can be spellbinding, but the spell must not be broken from start to finish. Though each set has twelve separate pieces, the attention of the listener must not be allowed to waver, either because of the actions of the pianist (who must stay seated and minimize all gestures inside the piano) or because of failure to move rapidly from one movement to the next. Crumb's music is full of fermatas; these rarely, if ever, mean silence. Some reverberation should be heard at all times in order that the momentum, the thread of the total conception, not be lost.

In all his music, but particularly in the two sets of Makrokosmos, a certain dramatic abandon is necessary. The vocal effects must be done with conviction and strength, the various climaxes should be well approached and powerful, and all sound combinations must be fully understood and executed with complete assurance.

Crumb's teaching and music have had enormous influence on composers. His legacy, in addition to his now universally known music, is not so much this particular style but the care with which Crumb approaches the craft of composition, the fantasy of his conceptions, the beauty and clarity of his calligraphy, and the imagination with which he combines sounds of the most disparate nature into an integrated, unified whole.


" "While composing Makrokosmos, I was aware of certain recurrent haunting images. At times quite vivid, at times vague and almost subliminal, these images seemed to coalesce around the following several ideas (given in no logical sequence, since there is none): the 'magical properties' of music; the problem of the origin of evil' the 'timelessness' of time; a sense of the profound ironies of life (so beautifully expressed in the music of Mozart and Mahler); the haunting words of Pascal: 'Le silence eternal des espaces infinis m'effraie' (The eternal silence of infinite space terrifies me'); and these few lines of Rilke: 'Und in den Nдchten fдllt die schwere Erde aus allen Stemen in die Einsamkeit Wir alle fallen. Und doch ist Einer, welcher dieses Fallen unendlich sanft in seinen Hдnden hдlt' ('And in the nights the heavy earth is falling from all the stars down into loneliness. We are all falling. And yet there is One who holds this falling endlessly gently in his hands')".

Much of the above is excerpted from Burge's book, Twentieth-Century Piano Music (Scarecrow Press, 2004). The final quote from George Crumb is from the liner notes for the first recording of Makrokosmos, Volume I (Nonesuch H-71293).

Вы сидели когда-нибудь в рояле, а точнее не в, а под, но нижняя дека снята, струны над вами, так как звук, сведенный в середину, слышится сверху. Но экзотика не только в месте (форма), но и в содержании. Демонстрация того, что можно с роялем делать, а всё, только что не двигают его. Можно и нормально играть (иногда), но самое интересное под крышкой – там же струны, а с ними мы много всяких инструментов знаем. А как медут себя струны, если а них накричать? Или просто что-то сказать какие-то слова? Или положить что-то, ну лист бумаги или что-то скачущее по струнам. Gonzostick на SA-CD.net пишет: не волнуйтесь, у вас спикер не порвался. А это всё задумано автором, а еще используется некая электроника к этому роялю. А само произведение. Звуки, иногда разрозненные, иногда цепочками, но без диссонансов, всегда тональны. Или вдруг Шопен прорывается, мягко так. Получается коллаж, как на выставке современного искусства. Но там бывает бурда-бурдой, а иногда забавно или даже интересно, «в этом что-то есть, надо бы обдумать». К стати эта работа вдвойне инсталляционна. И по своему содержанию (архитектонике – во!) и по возможному представлению, она легко вписывается в контекст экспозиции выставки современного искусства в фоновом режиме. В первое прослушивание просто напрочь меня убаюкало. Если ночью часа в три среди сна услышите, со словами «чур меня» на другой бок повернетесь и снова в отключку. Как оно ко всей макрокосмической звездной теме подшивается, если бы я знал? Надо бы обдумать.

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